Guidelines for Installation of Shaft Mechanical Seal

The following list provides a guideline for successful installation of Mechanical seals. This is a result of the project work done by Mr C. Vijayakumar for his Diploma in Mechanical Engineering at IGNOU.

1. Always handle mechanical seals with extreme care. Cleanliness is imperative. Never place faces face down on bench or floor. Continue reading Guidelines for Installation of Shaft Mechanical Seal


BioDiesel can be produced from Vegetable oil. This is a known fact. It can also be produced from Animals, both Mammals & Aquatic.

Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from lipid feedstock (vegetable oils or Continue reading BIODIESEL FROM ANIMAL FAT

Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) Optimization

Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) is used extensively in biopharmaceutical industries for clarification of microbial cells/animal cells, inclusion bodies clarification, protein concentration and diafiltration, buffer exchange, viral clearance, etc. Multiple Centrifugation steps can be avoided by a well designed TFF system with an optimized protocol.

TFF Process Development
The first step in the development of a TFF Continue reading Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) Optimization

Expanded Bed Adsorption Chromatography

Expanded Bed Adsorption (EBA) allows the protein removal directly from the fermentation broth without going for prior removal of particulates like cell debris and other unwanted products. It reduces the time and cost for further separation procedures in the down stream processing. Continue reading Expanded Bed Adsorption Chromatography

Physical methods of Cell Disruption – Homogenizer

Cell disruption is needed for the extraction of intracellular products. The method used may vary depending on the type of cell and its cell wall composition. Irrespective of the method used, the main aim is that the disruption must be effective and the method should not be too harsh so that the product recovered remains in its active form.

There are different Continue reading Physical methods of Cell Disruption – Homogenizer


Disruption is to disorder something, or to break it apart. This interpretation may be extended easily to the disruption of microbial cells. The desired product is located intracellular and is isolated from the suspending medium by an impermeable cell wall and membrane. Cell disruption Continue reading CELL DISRUPTION (MICROORGANISMS)